The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emergence in late 2019 marked the introduction of a highly spread viral pathogen threatening human population globally. The new virus is closely related genetically and clinically to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). There are no specific antiviral drugs approved against human coronavirus infection and all treatments are supportive. The genome of coronavirus contains several open reading frames (ORFs) that encode both non-structural proteins (nsp) and structural proteins. Most of the encoded proteins have been reported as multifunctional proteins and plays a specific role in coronavirus (CoV) replication and assembly. This review focuses on the potential vaccine and antiviral targets for coronavirus, including different proteins and genes. Understanding the current targets and discovering new possible therapeutic targets will help toward developing effective vaccines and antiviral drug against current SARS-CoV-2 outbreak and possible future outbreak.
Schiff base compounds are called relative to the scientist who first prepared them (Hugo Schiff). They are synthesized by the condensation reaction of the carbonyl group –C=O– of the aldehyde or ketone compound with a primary amine. This leads to the formation of azomethine or imine group –C=N– plus water molecule. Schiff base molecules have gained special importance due to their biological activity, such as anti-inflammatory and antibiotic. Schiff base compounds are also utilized in the industry as corrosion inhibitors, dyes, and photo-stabilizers of plastic polymers. This short review includes highlighting of recent approaches of synthesis novel Schiff base molecules. It also discusses the mechanism of the reaction and why it is a reversible condensation reaction.
The leaves of Stevia rebaudiana, from Asteraceae family, are a source of steviol glycosides, which are utilized as a sweeter, more favorite addition. Among the most important anatomical results that were reached through the research and which distinguish the plant from an anatomical point of view are uniseriate-multicellular of non-glandular trichomes that are covered the epidermis of stem and leaves. Also, the vertical walls of the ordinary epidermis cells in the upper and lower epidermis that are heavily sinuous and the stomata scattered in both of it, the type of the stomata anomocytic. In addition, the mesophyll which differentiated into 2-3 layers of palisade cells under the upper epidermis and the spongy cells after it and the cross-section of midrib region of the leaf as crescent shape and the vascular bundle central, crescent shape.
In response to a meal, the signals of satiety suppress the signals of hunger (meaning to finish the meal). These signals originate in the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract, transmitting information from the periphery to the brain (by the vagus nerve or the circulation). The study aimed to estimate whether the serum level of Cholecystokinin (CCK) in three male groups is influenced by their type of food. The current study included Sixty volunteers of adult males (normal-weight group n=20, overweight group n=20, and obese I group n=20) (21- 24 years). The blood samples were taken from subjects in the afternoon after (30 minutes–2 hours) from lunch was consumed, during March 2021 till June 2021. ELIZA kit was used to assay the serum concentration of the Cholecystokinin hormone. The anthropometric measurements were done, such as body weight and height, to calculate body mass index (BMI) by special formula, and the subjects were assorted depending on WHO body mass index (BMI) classification. Cholecystokinin showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in obese I (311.201±21.542) and overweight (353.494 ± 43.915) as compared with the normal weight group (646.002 ± 46.344). A significant negative correlation was noticed between the hormone and body weight. Eating palatable food leads to uncontrolled ingesting behaviors due to the shift from homeostatic to hedonic regulatory mechanisms of food intake. These changes occur primarily in individuals with obesity and thus lead to an irregularity in the secretion of anorexigenic hormones.
A stroke happens when an artery in the brain gets blocked or ruptured, which results in the death of a brain tissue area because of a loss of its blood supply (brain infarction). Most strokes are ischemic strokes caused by ischemia due to arterial occlusion, but some are hemorrhagic strokes caused by an arterial rupture. Transient ischemic attacks have been considered similar to ischemic strokes. However, they cause no permanent damages to the brain, and their signs usually resolve during 1 h., which are sometimes called mini-strokes. As for hemorrhagic strokes that cause a blood clot, that is, that deprives brain cells of blood supply, and therefore enough oxygen and glucose, the damage depends on the length of time the brain cells are deprived of blood, for example, If brain cells are deprived of the blood for only a short period of time, they can be slightly damaged, but if brain cells are deprived of blood for a longer period, the cells may die, and thus the patient loses some body functions, sometimes permanently. High blood pressure has been defined as the leading risk factor for strokes, and there are other factors like smoking, high blood cholesterol, obesity, atrial fibrillation, diabetes, and others. Strokes are more common among the elderly than younger adults because of the risks of injuries that result in causing strokes with age. Statistics have indicated that over 2/3 of the strokes happen in people who are older than 65, while the rates of strokes in men are very slightly higher than women, but more than 60% of stroke deaths occur in women, and this may be because women They have a stroke at a slightly higher (average) age than men. Black people have a higher possibility of getting a stroke than white people.
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were known not so long ago as a type of diverse non-coding RNAs that have received much attention due to their multiple regulatory activities at the nuclear and cellular level and their essential participation in the regulation of many chemical and biological activities. Although lncRNAs are expressed at low levels, they do not encode proteins, are insufficiently conserved, and act by various mechanisms. However, some characteristics and functions of several copies of lncRNAs separate them from other forms of non-coding RNA have been discovered. Here we will look at how events develop in lncRNAs and talk about their main biological properties and influences, as well as how to achieve such a wide range of functions using a variety of mechanisms such as protein transfer, gene transcription, chromatin rearrangement, unique properties, and other biological activities.
SAR-COV2 is still a pressing issue, 219M people were infected and more than 4.5M lost their lives. The majority of antiviral and inflammatory therapies could only provide a supportive role in treating a limited number of COVID cases. This review investigates the available vaccines in terms of their safety and efficiency in fighting the virus. Seven vaccines are similar in their side effects to other influenza vaccines and their necessity to a booster dose. Although that several technologies have been used to manufacture the vaccine, mRNA vaccines clearly show a high protection rate touched 90% specially in severe and hospitalization cases prevention. Among all available vaccines, Pfizer vaccine is an exception as it granted the full approval to be used in people age 16 and under till five years.
In this paper, the copolymer (styrene-methyl methacrylate) was prepared by using free radical polymerization for the copolymerization between methyl methacrylate and styrene in an equal molar mixing ratio and using benzoyl peroxide as a starter at a temperature of 70 °C. Then the prepared copolymer was converted to poly hydroxamic acid, and this was done by reacting the copolymer with hydroxylamine hydrochloride at a base medium of = 13 using sodium hydroxide with heat escalation for a period of 70 °C. The nickel ion sorption capacity of the resultant product was evaluated using poly hydroxamic acid and spectroscopic FT-IR. As well as studying the effect of time, temperature, and acidity function on the sorption capacity by chelating poly hydroxamic acid. Where it was shown that the capacity of adsorption increases with increasing time and decreases with increase in temperature mediated by poly hydroxamic acid. The equations of Arrhenius and Vant Hof were used, and from the enthalpy values, it was shown that the reaction was exothermic, and from the negative compression energy values, it was found that the reaction is spontaneous and the type of physical detention is mediated by poly hydroxamic acid.
A novel ligand N-(2-hydroxyl phenyl)-(4-pentloxy-benzate-salicyIidene) (H2L) prepared by 1:1 molar ratio of 4-pentyloxy (4-formyl-3-hydroxy)-benzoate and 2-aminophenol, synthesis of [M(H2L)H2O] and [Cu2L2] complexes were described by IR spectroscopy, C.H.N.O, 1H, 13CNMR, , GCmass. photovoltaic measurement of H2L and Cu2L2 as photosensitizers by dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) the best result was for Cu2L2 than H2L.
Organotin(IV) complexes recently have been receiving great attention due to their stability with a unique structure, physical and chemical properties. There are many applications, the organotin(IV) can be used as catalysts, antifouling agents, UV- and heat stabilizers, anticorrosion, anticancer and antimicrobial activities. This review summarizes the synthesis methods, characterization and biological activities of organotin(IV) thiosemicarbazones derivatives with their activities as anticancer and antimicrobial agents.
Cobalt ferrite Co0.8Fe2.2O4 nanoparticles were prepared using the sol-gel auto combustion process. The effects of calcination temperature on structural, magnetic, and electrical properties were studied. The cubic spinel phase fashioning of ferrite structure was confirmed using Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray Diffraction Patterns (XRD). The size of the formed crystallite of ferrite samples is ranged from 24.530 to 49.067 nm and it is found to be dependent on calcination. According to the images, which were taken by a Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), the particle size increases with raising the calcination temperature. Energy Dispersive Spectrum (EDS) was used to confirm the presence of Co, Fe, and O in all samples. A Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) was used to study the magnetic properties such as coercivity, saturation magnetization, and remanence field for the as-burnt and calcined samples. All samples exhibited ferrimagnetic behavior. As the calcination temperature rises, saturation magnetization (M_s), remanent magnetization (M_r), and squareness ratio (M_r/ M_s) increased. This behavior is related to the spin canting and disturbance in the surface spin. At room temperature, the dielectric loss factor (ε''), dielectric loss angle (tanδ), dielectric constant (ε'), and the conductivity σ_ac of all samples were examined as a function of frequency using the LCR meter. The changes in dielectric properties have been characterized at frequencies ranged from 50Hz to 2MHz based on Koop's theory, Maxwell-Wagner polarization, and electron hopping. As frequency rose, all-dielectric properties exhibited natural behavior.
Measurement of naturally and artificial radionuclide concentrations deposited in Iraqi building materials used in housing construction in the Baghdad city. Six samples from different sites have chosen. (Soil, Gipson, Cement, Brick, Sand, Gravel). The high purity Germanium detector (HpGe) have been used to measure the concentration of gamma emitter radionuclides from both uranium – radium and thorium series, 40K and 137Cs. The spectra for each sample were analyzed for (7200 sec). The percentage errors were calculated. The range of specific activities for studied radionuclides were as follows: The average concentrations of 238U is between (13-70) Bq/kg, 232Th is (2-34) Bq/kg, 40K is (39-880) Bq/kg, and 137Cs is (0.2-6) Bq/kg.
The polymer was dissolved in twice distilled water, then nanoparticles were added to it. The flow time of the solutions was measured, then the viscosity was calculated and the surface tension of the solutions was measured by measuring the weight of the liquid drop. Solutions were left at room temperature to form thin films that were subjected to variable tension until they were cut and depending on the stress and strain of the samples. From the results, an increase in the stress borne by the samples was noted with an increase in the concentration of zinc oxide nanoparticles, and express the departure from the ideal elastic behavior has values ranging from 3.71 to 54, but quantity pertaining to the ideal elastic behavior has values ranging from 1.2 to 1.0. Increase viscosity of the solutions and their surface tension. This makes it clear that it is possible to change some properties of the PVA by adding zinc oxide nanoparticles, the sum of Huggins and Kraemer constants values indicates that the samples were dissolved in a good solvent, as they can be used in many areas of life such as industrial, medical applications.